By extension, this also implies that single case study analysis therefore remains an option for a multitude of IR theories and issue areas; it is how this can be put to researchers’ advantage that is the subject of the next section. For STAKE case study research is "the study of the particularity and complexity of a single case, coming to understand its activity within important circumstances" (p.xi). Case study research has a long history within the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, dating back to the early 1920’s. Those of a more post-modernist bent, of course – sharing an “incredulity towards meta-narratives”, in Lyotard’s (1994: xxiv) evocative phrase – would instead suggest that this more free-form approach actually be advantageous in delving into the subtleties and particularities of individual cases. Donations are voluntary and not required to download the e-book - your link to download is below. Stake, R. (1994). 17. "Seldom is an entirely new understanding reached but refinement of understanding is (p. The question of researcher subjectivity is a valid one, and it may be intended only as a methodological critique of what are obviously less formalised and researcher-independent methods (Verschuren, 2003). The cases in a collective case study require coordination among them. Imperialism’s Legacy in the Study of Contemporary Politics: The Case of Hegemonic Stability Theory, Terrorists or Freedom Fighters: A Case Study of ETA, A Critical Assessment of Eco-Marxism: A Ghanaian Case Study, An Evaluation of National Party System Europeanization: A Case Study of Croatia, Water Crisis or What are Crises? As Tim May (2011: 226) notes, “the goal for many proponents of case studies […] is to overcome dichotomies between generalizing and particularizing, quantitative and qualitative, deductive and inductive techniques”. ", "The case is a specific, a complex, functioning thing (p. However, whereas the latter obviously tend toward an explicitly-acknowledged interpretive basis for meanings, reasons, and understandings: “quantitative measures appear objective, but only so long as we don’t ask questions about where and how the data were produced… pure objectivity is not a meaningful concept if the goal is to measure intangibles [as] these concepts only exist because we can interpret them” (Berg and Lune, 2010: 340). Owen (1994) and Layne’s (1994) contradictory process tracing results of interdemocratic war-avoidance during the Anglo-American crisis of 1861 to 1863 – from liberal and realist standpoints respectively – are a useful example. Exploratory and descriptive studies usually tend toward the qualitative and inductive, whereas explanatory studies are more often quantitative and deductive (David and Sutton, 2011: 165-166). Merriam and Stake, three leading case study methodol-ogists). Whilst Eckstein’s was an early contribution to refining the case study approach, Yin’s (2009: 47-52) more recent delineation of possible single case designs similarly assigns them roles in the applying, testing, or building of theory, as well as in the study of unique cases[3]. The focu . J. Gustafsson also the researcher to get a deeper understanding of the subject (Dyer & Wilkins, 1991). Representative or random samples may not be the most appropriate, given that they may not provide the richest insight (or indeed, that a random and unknown deviant case may appear). Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to Download PDF . Their reports and consultations will include strictly determined findings and loosely determined assertions (p. Such an observation assumes a polarity and stems from a particular view of research. If you ally need such a referred collective case study stake 1994 book that will manage to pay for you worth, acquire the completely best seller from us currently from several preferred authors. It is “a common misconception”, he notes, “that the various research methods should be arrayed hierarchically… many social scientists still deeply believe that case studies are only appropriate for the exploratory phase of an investigation” (Yin, 2009: 6). Secondly, as Tim May notes of the case study approach, “even the most fervent advocates acknowledge that the term has entered into understandings with little specification or discussion of purpose and process” (2011: 220). Ch. amount, in any currency, is appreciated. Single case study analysis has, however, been subject to a number of criticisms, the most common of which concern the inter-related issues of methodological rigour, researcher subjectivity, and external validity. 7). Finally, and perhaps most notably, Eckstein then outlined the idea of crucial case studies, within which he also included the idea of ‘most-likely’ and ‘least-likely’ cases; the essential characteristic of crucial cases being their specific theory-testing function. A second issue, again also incorporating issues of construct validity, concerns that of the reliability and replicability of various forms of single case study analysis. ", "By custom, researchers are privileged to assert what they find meaningful as a result of their inquiries. SAGE Publications Ltd: London. By extension, it can therefore be incorporated by a range of contemporary mainstream IR theories. Bennett, A. and Elman, C. (2007) ‘Case Study Methods in the International Relations Subfield’, Comparative Political Studies, 40, 2, 170-195. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. As such, three key points can be derived from this – respectively concerning issues of ontology, epistemology, and … These cases illustrate the critical role a smart Social Security claiming decision can make on retirement finances. ", "Grand generalizations also can be modified by case study (p. Eckstein’s own sceptical view was that any interpreter ‘simply’ considers a body of observations that are not self-explanatory and “without hard rules of interpretation, may discern in them any number of patterns that are more or less equally plausible” (1975: 134). ", "We tout case study as being noninterventive and empathic. Case studies have become in many cases a synonym for freeform research where anything goes”. Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage. This points to the important difference between what Yin refers to as an ‘holistic’ case design, with a single unit of analysis, and an ’embedded’ case design with multiple units of analysis (Yin, 2009: 50-52). They identify ‘process tracing’ as having emerged from this as a central method of within-case analysis. Bennett and Elman (2010: 505-506) also identify the advantages of single case studies that are implicitly comparative: deviant, most-likely, least-likely, and crucial cases. This content was originally written for an undergraduate or Master's program. (2006a) Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. 29. Sections . The director or coordinator will think about all the cases, but a field researcher or data gatherer will concentrate on each single case almost as if it is the only one. Lyotard, J-F. (1984) The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. As noted above, a lack of consensus still exists within the wider social science literature on the principles and purposes – and by extension the advantages and limitations – of case study research. Lipset, S. M. (1959) ‘Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy’, The American Political Science Review, 53, 1, 69-105. Ultimately, the interpretations of the researcher are likely to be emphasized more than the interpretations of those people studied, but the qualitative case researcher tries to preserve the multiple realities, the different and even contradictory views of what is happening (p. One of the principal reasons for this, he argues, is the relationship between the use of case studies in social research and the differing epistemological traditions – positivist, interpretivist, and others – within which it has been utilised. Chapter 1: The Unique Case "The case is a specific, a complex, functioning thing (p. In G. Glass (Ed. About the author (2005) Robert E. Stake is Director of the Center for Instructional Research and Curriculum Evaluation at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. An instrumental case study occurs when we need to understand the case in order to understand the bigger research question at hand. Stake’s instrumental and collective case study types as well as Yin’s case study designs (i.e., types 1-4), with their emphasis on projecting case study results to something outside the case (i.e., a theory or phenomenon), are classified as external case study designs because the researcher’s primary focus is on extending the outcomes beyond the specific cases(s). Within-case process tracing has also been identified as advantageous in addressing the complexity of path-dependent explanations and critical junctures – as for example with the development of political regime types – and their constituent elements of causal possibility, contingency, closure, and constraint (Bennett and Elman, 2006b). First, case study examines a specific phenomenon in detail by performing an indepth and intensive analysis of the selected case. Define the Main Principles, and Analyse the Advantages and Limitations of One of the Following Research Methods: (i) Single Case Study Analysis. The core of the debate concerns a difference between in-depth single case studies (classical case study) to a focus on the comparison of multiple cases. 4).". Chapter 3 | Generalizability and the Single-Case Study Previous Next. Certain generalizations can be drawn when they appear again and again in the data. Tales of the field: On writing ethnography. Meaning that its focus is to go beyond the case. Princeton University Press: Chichester. Introduction: An Intensive Study of Case Study Research Methods, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, EDU105, Tampa, FL 33620  |  rebeccaburns@usf.edu, 19901999, 1995, case study, constructivism, constructivist, relativity, researcher roles, StakeR, 19901999, 1995, case study, interpretation, qualitative research, qualitative vs quantitative, research methodology, StakeR, subjectivity, "Case study is the study of the particularity and complexity of a single case, coming to understand its activity within important circumstances (xi). Show page numbers . This book presents a disciplined, qualitative exploration of case study methods by drawing from naturalistic, holistic, ethnographic, phenomenological and biographic research methods. In line with that view, Stake’s (1995: 1) vision of case study research is that: we enter the scene with a sincere interest in learning how [actors] function in ordinary pursuits and milieus and with a willingness to put aside many presumptions while we learn. The use of the case study method has gained mainstream acceptance in both entrepreneurship and information systems research to develop conceptual and theoretical models that are novel, yet grounded in the literature. What this definition usefully captures is that case studies are intended – unlike more superficial and generalising methods – to provide a level of detail and understanding, similar to the ethnographer Clifford Geertz’s (1973) notion of ‘thick description’, that allows for the thorough analysis of the complex and particularistic nature of distinct phenomena. Assertions: "On the basis of observations and other data, researchers draw their own conclusions (p. David, M. and Sutton, C. D. (2011) Social Research: An Introduction. A third qualification relates to the issue of case selection. Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and pay our the-art-of-case-study-research-by-robert-e-stake 1/1 Downloaded from calendar.pridesource.com on November 13, 2020 by guest [DOC] The Art Of Case Study Research By Robert E Stake Getting the books the art of case study research by robert e stake now is not type of challenging means. (2008) ‘Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research: A Menu of Qualitative and Quantitative Options’, Political Research Quarterly, 61, 2, 294-308. Robert E. Stake's The Art of Case Study Research (1995). (2006b) ‘Single-Outcome Studies: A Methodological Primer’, International Sociology, 21, 5, 707-734. Stake identifies three types of case study: intrinsic case study, instrumental case study, and collective case study. Run by an all volunteer team than narrow and dogmatic preconceived approaches the subject ( Dyer & Wilkins 1991... A whole Levy ( 2008 ) notes that the advantages and limitations of single case Studies goes. 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